Установка и настройка графического интерфейса




Здравствуйте, уважаемые читатели! Наверное, уже давно было пора установить на микрокомпьютер графический интерфейс... Увы, но руки у меня до него дошли только сейчас.

Микрокомпьютер имеет небольшой объём оперативной памяти - из 128 Мб за вычетом фреймбуфера остаётся всего 86,5 Мб, и невысокую частоту ядра ARM1176JZF-S - всего 324 МГц. На практике, даже простейшее графическое окружение XFCE работает неспешно, об этом, впрочем, говорили сами разработчики. Поэтому, помимо графического сервера Xorg, лучше ограничиться простым оконным менеджером, оконным терминалом и файловым менеджером.

В основе графического интерфейса для операционных систем на основе ядра Linux, Raspbian в частности, лежит оконная система X Window System, первая версия которой появилась ещё в 1984 году. Поэтому, перво-наперво нужно установить X Window System. Как оказалось, два необходимых пакета шрифтов в репозитории оказались битыми и их нужно устанавливать отдельно. Например, распаковать содержимое архива в каталог /root и установить пакеты вручную:

root@shade:~# dpkg -i fonts-dejavu-core_2.37-1_all.deb
Selecting previously unselected package fonts-dejavu-core.
(Reading database ... 12738 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack fonts-dejavu-core_2.37-1_all.deb ...
Unpacking fonts-dejavu-core (2.37-1) ...
Setting up fonts-dejavu-core (2.37-1) ...
root@shade:~# dpkg -i ttf-dejavu-core_2.37-1_all.deb
Selecting previously unselected package ttf-dejavu-core.
(Reading database ... 12784 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack ttf-dejavu-core_2.37-1_all.deb ...
Unpacking ttf-dejavu-core (2.37-1) ...
Setting up ttf-dejavu-core (2.37-1) ...

Вот теперь можно устанавливать Х-сервер:

apt-get install xserver-xorg

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  keyboard-configuration libdrm-freedreno1 libdrm-nouveau2 libdrm-radeon1
  libegl1-mesa libepoxy0 libevdev2 libexpat1 libfontenc1 libfreetype6 libgbm1
  libgl1-mesa-glx libglapi-mesa libice6 libllvm3.5 libmtdev1 libpciaccess0
  libpixman-1-0 libsm6 libwayland-client0 libwayland-server0 libx11-6
  libx11-data libx11-xcb1 libxau6 libxaw7 libxcb-dri2-0 libxcb-dri3-0
  libxcb-glx0 libxcb-present0 libxcb-render0 libxcb-shape0 libxcb-sync1
  libxcb-xfixes0 libxcb1 libxdamage1 libxdmcp6 libxext6 libxfixes3 libxfont1
  libxi6 libxkbfile1 libxmu6 libxpm4 libxshmfence1 libxt6 libxtst6 libxxf86vm1
  x11-common x11-xkb-utils xkb-data xserver-common xserver-xorg-core
  xserver-xorg-input-all xserver-xorg-input-evdev xserver-xorg-input-synaptics
  xserver-xorg-video-all xserver-xorg-video-ati xserver-xorg-video-fbdev
  xserver-xorg-video-mach64 xserver-xorg-video-modesetting
  xserver-xorg-video-nouveau xserver-xorg-video-r128 xserver-xorg-video-radeon
  xserver-xorg-video-vesa
Suggested packages:
  pciutils xfonts-100dpi xfonts-75dpi xfonts-scalable
  gpointing-device-settings touchfreeze firmware-linux
Recommended packages:
  libegl1-mesa-drivers libgl1-mesa-dri xfonts-base xauth
  xserver-xorg-input-wacom
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  keyboard-configuration libdrm-freedreno1 libdrm-nouveau2 libdrm-radeon1
  libegl1-mesa libepoxy0 libevdev2 libexpat1 libfontenc1 libfreetype6 libgbm1
  libgl1-mesa-glx libglapi-mesa libice6 libllvm3.5 libmtdev1 libpciaccess0
  libpixman-1-0 libsm6 libwayland-client0 libwayland-server0 libx11-6
  libx11-data libx11-xcb1 libxau6 libxaw7 libxcb-dri2-0 libxcb-dri3-0
  libxcb-glx0 libxcb-present0 libxcb-render0 libxcb-shape0 libxcb-sync1
  libxcb-xfixes0 libxcb1 libxdamage1 libxdmcp6 libxext6 libxfixes3 libxfont1
  libxi6 libxkbfile1 libxmu6 libxpm4 libxshmfence1 libxt6 libxtst6 libxxf86vm1
  x11-common x11-xkb-utils xkb-data xserver-common xserver-xorg
  xserver-xorg-core xserver-xorg-input-all xserver-xorg-input-evdev
  xserver-xorg-input-synaptics xserver-xorg-video-all xserver-xorg-video-ati
  xserver-xorg-video-fbdev xserver-xorg-video-mach64
  xserver-xorg-video-modesetting xserver-xorg-video-nouveau
  xserver-xorg-video-r128 xserver-xorg-video-radeon xserver-xorg-video-vesa
0 upgraded, 66 newly installed, 0 to remove and 59 not upgraded.
Need to get 19.8 MB of archives.
After this operation, 59.4 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y

Свернуть

Оконная система будет установлена с минимумом пакетов:

Get:1 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main keyboard-configuration all 1.123 [766 kB]
Get:2 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libdrm-freedreno1 armhf 2.4.58-2 [20.3 kB]
Get:3 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libdrm-nouveau2 armhf 2.4.58-2 [20.7 kB]
Get:4 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libdrm-radeon1 armhf 2.4.58-2 [28.0 kB]
Get:5 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libexpat1 armhf 2.1.0-6+deb8u4 [60.6 kB]
Get:6 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libglapi-mesa armhf 10.3.2-1+deb8u1 [66.8 kB]
Get:7 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libllvm3.5 armhf 1:3.5-10+rpi1 [6644 kB]
Get:8 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libwayland-client0 armhf 1.6.0-2 [18.5 kB]
Get:9 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libwayland-server0 armhf 1.6.0-2 [22.3 kB]
Get:10 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgbm1 armhf 10.3.2-1+deb8u1 [1225 kB]
Get:11 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxau6 armhf 1:1.0.8-1 [19.9 kB]
Get:12 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxdmcp6 armhf 1:1.1.1-1 [24.6 kB]
Get:13 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb1 armhf 1.10-3 [38.1 kB]
Get:14 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libx11-data all 2:1.6.2-3+deb8u2 [126 kB]
Get:15 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libx11-6 armhf 2:1.6.2-3+deb8u2 [665 kB]
Get:16 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libx11-xcb1 armhf 2:1.6.2-3+deb8u2 [163 kB]
Get:17 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-dri2-0 armhf 1.10-3 [12.1 kB]
Get:18 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-render0 armhf 1.10-3 [16.0 kB]
Get:19 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-shape0 armhf 1.10-3 [11.0 kB]
Get:20 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-xfixes0 armhf 1.10-3 [13.8 kB]
Get:21 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libegl1-mesa armhf 10.3.2-1+deb8u1 [87.0 kB]
Get:22 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libevdev2 armhf 1.3+dfsg-1 [22.7 kB]
Get:23 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libfontenc1 armhf 1:1.1.2-1 [23.9 kB]
Get:24 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libfreetype6 armhf 2.5.2-3+deb8u2 [412 kB]
Get:25 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-dri3-0 armhf 1.10-3 [10.6 kB]
Get:26 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-glx0 armhf 1.10-3 [23.8 kB]
Get:27 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-present0 armhf 1.10-3 [10.8 kB]
Get:28 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-sync1 armhf 1.10-3 [13.2 kB]
Get:29 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxfixes3 armhf 1:5.0.1-2+deb8u1 [19.9 kB]
Get:30 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxdamage1 armhf 1:1.1.4-2 [13.9 kB]
Get:31 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxext6 armhf 2:1.3.3-1 [48.1 kB]
Get:32 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxshmfence1 armhf 1.1-4+rpi1 [6704 B]
Get:33 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxxf86vm1 armhf 1:1.1.3-1 [20.0 kB]
Get:34 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgl1-mesa-glx armhf 10.3.2-1+deb8u1 [170 kB]
Get:35 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main x11-common all 1:7.7+7 [287 kB]
Get:36 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libice6 armhf 2:1.0.9-1 [51.2 kB]
Get:37 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libmtdev1 armhf 1.1.5-1 [20.9 kB]
Get:38 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libpciaccess0 armhf 0.13.2-3 [44.6 kB]
Get:39 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libpixman-1-0 armhf 0.32.6-3+deb8u1 [426 kB]
Get:40 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libsm6 armhf 2:1.2.2-1 [31.2 kB]
Get:41 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxt6 armhf 1:1.1.4-1 [183 kB]
Get:42 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxmu6 armhf 2:1.1.2-1 [50.8 kB]
Get:43 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxpm4 armhf 1:3.5.12-0+deb8u1 [43.7 kB]
Get:44 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxaw7 armhf 2:1.0.12-2 [159 kB]
Get:45 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxfont1 armhf 1:1.5.1-1+deb8u1 [118 kB]
Get:46 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxi6 armhf 2:1.7.4-1+deb8u1 [74.7 kB]
Get:47 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxkbfile1 armhf 1:1.0.8-1 [74.9 kB]
Get:48 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxtst6 armhf 2:1.2.2-1+deb8u1 [25.6 kB]
Get:49 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libepoxy0 armhf 1.2-1 [147 kB]
Get:50 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main x11-xkb-utils armhf 7.7+1 [138 kB]
Get:51 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xkb-data all 2.12-1 [597 kB]
Get:52 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-common all 2:1.16.4-1+deb8u2 [1759 kB]
Get:53 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-core armhf 2:1.16.4-1+deb8u2 [2833 kB]
Get:54 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-r128 armhf 6.9.2-1+b2 [173 kB]
Get:55 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-mach64 armhf 6.9.4-2 [180 kB]
Get:56 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-radeon armhf 1:7.5.0-1 [406 kB]
Get:57 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-ati armhf 1:7.5.0-1 [303 kB]
Get:58 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-fbdev armhf 1:0.4.4-1+b3 [22.4 kB]
Get:59 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-modesetting armhf 0.9.0-2 [28.8 kB]
Get:60 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-nouveau armhf 1:1.0.11-1 [301 kB]
Get:61 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-vesa armhf 1:2.3.3-1+b3 [28.3 kB]
Get:62 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-video-all armhf 1:7.7+7+b1 [36.9 kB]
Get:63 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-input-evdev armhf 1:2.9.0-2 [108 kB]
Get:64 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-input-synaptics armhf 1.8.1-1 [203 kB]
Get:65 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg-input-all armhf 1:7.7+7+b1 [36.8 kB]
Get:66 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xserver-xorg armhf 1:7.7+7+b1 [109 kB]
Fetched 19.8 MB in 38s (520 kB/s)
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76, <> line 66.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
Extracting templates from packages: 100%
Preconfiguring packages ...
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Unpacking xserver-xorg (1:7.7+7+b1) ...
Processing triggers for systemd (215-17+deb8u7) ...
Setting up keyboard-configuration (1.123) ...
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
update-rc.d: warning: start and stop actions are no longer supported; falling back to defaults
update-rc.d: warning: start and stop actions are no longer supported; falling back to defaults
Setting up libdrm-freedreno1:armhf (2.4.58-2) ...
Setting up libdrm-nouveau2:armhf (2.4.58-2) ...
Setting up libdrm-radeon1:armhf (2.4.58-2) ...
Setting up libexpat1:armhf (2.1.0-6+deb8u4) ...
Setting up libglapi-mesa:armhf (10.3.2-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libllvm3.5:armhf (1:3.5-10+rpi1) ...
Setting up libwayland-client0:armhf (1.6.0-2) ...
Setting up libwayland-server0:armhf (1.6.0-2) ...
Setting up libgbm1:armhf (10.3.2-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libxau6:armhf (1:1.0.8-1) ...
Setting up libxdmcp6:armhf (1:1.1.1-1) ...
Setting up libxcb1:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libx11-data (2:1.6.2-3+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libx11-6:armhf (2:1.6.2-3+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libx11-xcb1:armhf (2:1.6.2-3+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libxcb-dri2-0:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libxcb-render0:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libxcb-shape0:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libxcb-xfixes0:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libegl1-mesa:armhf (10.3.2-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libevdev2 (1.3+dfsg-1) ...
Setting up libfontenc1:armhf (1:1.1.2-1) ...
Setting up libfreetype6:armhf (2.5.2-3+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libxcb-dri3-0:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libxcb-glx0:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libxcb-present0:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libxcb-sync1:armhf (1.10-3) ...
Setting up libxfixes3:armhf (1:5.0.1-2+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libxdamage1:armhf (1:1.1.4-2) ...
Setting up libxext6:armhf (2:1.3.3-1) ...
Setting up libxshmfence1:armhf (1.1-4+rpi1) ...
Setting up libxxf86vm1:armhf (1:1.1.3-1) ...
Setting up libgl1-mesa-glx:armhf (10.3.2-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up x11-common (1:7.7+7) ...
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
update-rc.d: warning: start and stop actions are no longer supported; falling back to defaults
Setting up libice6:armhf (2:1.0.9-1) ...
Setting up libmtdev1:armhf (1.1.5-1) ...
Setting up libpciaccess0:armhf (0.13.2-3) ...
Setting up libpixman-1-0:armhf (0.32.6-3+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libsm6:armhf (2:1.2.2-1) ...
Setting up libxt6:armhf (1:1.1.4-1) ...
Setting up libxmu6:armhf (2:1.1.2-1) ...
Setting up libxpm4:armhf (1:3.5.12-0+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libxaw7:armhf (2:1.0.12-2) ...
Setting up libxfont1:armhf (1:1.5.1-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libxi6:armhf (2:1.7.4-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libxkbfile1:armhf (1:1.0.8-1) ...
Setting up libxtst6:armhf (2:1.2.2-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libepoxy0 (1.2-1) ...
Setting up x11-xkb-utils (7.7+1) ...
Setting up xkb-data (2.12-1) ...
Setting up xserver-common (2:1.16.4-1+deb8u2) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-core (2:1.16.4-1+deb8u2) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-r128 (6.9.2-1+b2) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-mach64 (6.9.4-2) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-radeon (1:7.5.0-1) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-ati (1:7.5.0-1) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-fbdev (1:0.4.4-1+b3) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-modesetting (0.9.0-2) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-nouveau (1:1.0.11-1) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-vesa (1:2.3.3-1+b3) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-video-all (1:7.7+7+b1) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-input-evdev (1:2.9.0-2) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-input-synaptics (1.8.1-1) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg-input-all (1:7.7+7+b1) ...
Setting up xserver-xorg (1:7.7+7+b1) ...
Processing triggers for systemd (215-17+deb8u7) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-18+deb8u10) ...

Свернуть

Графическая подсистема установлена, но сама по себе Х-сервер выведет чёрный экран - он умеет выводить и отрисовывать окна только по командам. Для выдачи команд отрисовки окон нужно установить оконный менеджер, например, BlackBox:

apt-get install blackbox

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  fontconfig-config libbt0 libfontconfig1 libxft2 libxrender1
Suggested packages:
  menu bbkeys
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  blackbox fontconfig-config libbt0 libfontconfig1 libxft2 libxrender1
0 upgraded, 6 newly installed, 0 to remove and 59 not upgraded.
Need to get 937 kB of archives.
After this operation, 1740 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main fontconfig-config all 2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1 [274 kB]
Get:2 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libfontconfig1 armhf 2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1 [312 kB]
Get:3 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxrender1 armhf 1:0.9.8-1 [30.4 kB]
Get:4 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxft2 armhf 2.3.2-1 [48.3 kB]
Get:5 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libbt0 armhf 0.70.1-23+deb8u1 [80.5 kB]
Get:6 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main blackbox armhf 0.70.1-23+deb8u1 [192 kB]
Fetched 937 kB in 4s (196 kB/s)
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76, <> line 6.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
Preconfiguring packages ...
Selecting previously unselected package fontconfig-config.
(Reading database ... 13970 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../fontconfig-config_2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1_all.deb ...
Unpacking fontconfig-config (2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libfontconfig1:armhf.
Preparing to unpack .../libfontconfig1_2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libfontconfig1:armhf (2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libxrender1:armhf.
Preparing to unpack .../libxrender1_1%3a0.9.8-1_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libxrender1:armhf (1:0.9.8-1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libxft2:armhf.
Preparing to unpack .../libxft2_2.3.2-1_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libxft2:armhf (2.3.2-1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libbt0:armhf.
Preparing to unpack .../libbt0_0.70.1-23+deb8u1_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libbt0:armhf (0.70.1-23+deb8u1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package blackbox.
Preparing to unpack .../blackbox_0.70.1-23+deb8u1_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking blackbox (0.70.1-23+deb8u1) ...
Setting up fontconfig-config (2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1) ...
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
Setting up libfontconfig1:armhf (2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libxrender1:armhf (1:0.9.8-1) ...
Setting up libxft2:armhf (2.3.2-1) ...
Setting up libbt0:armhf (0.70.1-23+deb8u1) ...
Setting up blackbox (0.70.1-23+deb8u1) ...
update-alternatives: using /usr/bin/blackbox to provide /usr/bin/x-window-manager (x-window-manager) in auto mode
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-18+deb8u10) ...

Свернуть

Поскольку, оконный менеджер не умеет отображать иконки на рабочем столе, понадобится установить дополнительный пакет IDesk:

apt-get install idesk

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  libgif4 libid3tag0 libimlib2 libjbig0 libjpeg62-turbo libtiff5
Suggested packages:
  x11-utils
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  idesk libgif4 libid3tag0 libimlib2 libjbig0 libjpeg62-turbo libtiff5
0 upgraded, 7 newly installed, 0 to remove and 59 not upgraded.
Need to get 664 kB of archives.
After this operation, 1803 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgif4 armhf 4.1.6-11+deb8u1 [38.0 kB]
Get:2 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libjbig0 armhf 2.1-3.1 [27.5 kB]
Get:3 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libjpeg62-turbo armhf 1:1.3.1-12+deb8u2 [97.2 kB]
Get:4 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libtiff5 armhf 4.0.3-12.3+deb8u8 [204 kB]
Get:5 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libid3tag0 armhf 0.15.1b-11 [26.9 kB]
Get:6 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libimlib2 armhf 1.4.6-2+deb8u2 [150 kB]
Get:7 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main idesk armhf 0.7.5-5 [121 kB]
Fetched 664 kB in 2s (259 kB/s)
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76, <> line 7.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
Selecting previously unselected package libgif4:armhf.
(Reading database ... 14117 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../libgif4_4.1.6-11+deb8u1_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libgif4:armhf (4.1.6-11+deb8u1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libjbig0:armhf.
Preparing to unpack .../libjbig0_2.1-3.1_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libjbig0:armhf (2.1-3.1) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libjpeg62-turbo:armhf.
Preparing to unpack .../libjpeg62-turbo_1%3a1.3.1-12+deb8u2_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libjpeg62-turbo:armhf (1:1.3.1-12+deb8u2) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libtiff5:armhf.
Preparing to unpack .../libtiff5_4.0.3-12.3+deb8u8_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libtiff5:armhf (4.0.3-12.3+deb8u8) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libid3tag0.
Preparing to unpack .../libid3tag0_0.15.1b-11_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libid3tag0 (0.15.1b-11) ...
Selecting previously unselected package libimlib2.
Preparing to unpack .../libimlib2_1.4.6-2+deb8u2_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libimlib2 (1.4.6-2+deb8u2) ...
Selecting previously unselected package idesk.
Preparing to unpack .../idesk_0.7.5-5_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking idesk (0.7.5-5) ...
Setting up libgif4:armhf (4.1.6-11+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libjbig0:armhf (2.1-3.1) ...
Setting up libjpeg62-turbo:armhf (1:1.3.1-12+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libtiff5:armhf (4.0.3-12.3+deb8u8) ...
Setting up libid3tag0 (0.15.1b-11) ...
Setting up libimlib2 (1.4.6-2+deb8u2) ...
Setting up idesk (0.7.5-5) ...
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-18+deb8u10) ...

Свернуть

Для автоматического запуска графического интерфейса после загрузки микрокомпьютера понадобится установить дисплейный менеджер LightDM:

apt-get install lightdm

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  adwaita-icon-theme dbus dconf-gsettings-backend dconf-service fontconfig
  glib-networking glib-networking-common glib-networking-services
  gsettings-desktop-schemas hicolor-icon-theme libatk-bridge2.0-0 libatk1.0-0
  libatk1.0-data libatspi2.0-0 libavahi-client3 libavahi-common-data
  libavahi-common3 libcairo-gobject2 libcairo2 libcap-ng0 libcolord2 libcroco3
  libcups2 libdatrie1 libdconf1 libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0 libgdk-pixbuf2.0-common
  libglib2.0-0 libgraphite2-3 libgtk-3-0 libgtk-3-bin libgtk-3-common
  libharfbuzz0b libjasper1 libjson-glib-1.0-0 libjson-glib-1.0-common
  liblcms2-2 liblightdm-gobject-1-0 libpam-systemd libpango-1.0-0
  libpangocairo-1.0-0 libpangoft2-1.0-0 libproxy1 librest-0.7-0 librsvg2-2
  librsvg2-common libsoup-gnome2.4-1 libsoup2.4-1 libsystemd0 libthai-data
  libthai0 libwayland-cursor0 libxcb-shm0 libxcomposite1 libxcursor1
  libxinerama1 libxkbcommon0 libxklavier16 libxml2 libxrandr2
  lightdm-gtk-greeter shared-mime-info systemd systemd-sysv
Suggested packages:
  dbus-x11 cups-common gvfs libjasper-runtime liblcms2-utils librsvg2-bin
  iso-codes accountsservice upower systemd-ui
Recommended packages:
  at-spi2-core colord libglib2.0-data xdg-user-dirs xml-core desktop-base
  gnome-themes-standard gnome-icon-theme-symbolic policykit-1
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  adwaita-icon-theme dbus dconf-gsettings-backend dconf-service fontconfig
  glib-networking glib-networking-common glib-networking-services
  gsettings-desktop-schemas hicolor-icon-theme libatk-bridge2.0-0 libatk1.0-0
  libatk1.0-data libatspi2.0-0 libavahi-client3 libavahi-common-data
  libavahi-common3 libcairo-gobject2 libcairo2 libcap-ng0 libcolord2 libcroco3
  libcups2 libdatrie1 libdconf1 libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0 libgdk-pixbuf2.0-common
  libglib2.0-0 libgraphite2-3 libgtk-3-0 libgtk-3-bin libgtk-3-common
  libharfbuzz0b libjasper1 libjson-glib-1.0-0 libjson-glib-1.0-common
  liblcms2-2 liblightdm-gobject-1-0 libpam-systemd libpango-1.0-0
  libpangocairo-1.0-0 libpangoft2-1.0-0 libproxy1 librest-0.7-0 librsvg2-2
  librsvg2-common libsoup-gnome2.4-1 libsoup2.4-1 libthai-data libthai0
  libwayland-cursor0 libxcb-shm0 libxcomposite1 libxcursor1 libxinerama1
  libxkbcommon0 libxklavier16 libxml2 libxrandr2 lightdm lightdm-gtk-greeter
  shared-mime-info
The following packages will be upgraded:
  libsystemd0 systemd systemd-sysv
3 upgraded, 62 newly installed, 0 to remove and 56 not upgraded.
Need to get 28.2 MB of archives.
After this operation, 77.1 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y

Свернуть

LightDM по функциональности почти отдельный оконный менеджер, состоящий из 65 пакетов:

Get:1 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libsystemd0 armhf 215-17+deb8u13 [86.7 kB]
Get:2 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main systemd armhf 215-17+deb8u13 [2220 kB]
Get:3 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main systemd-sysv armhf 215-17+deb8u13 [37.5 kB]
Get:4 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxml2 armhf 2.9.1+dfsg1-5+deb8u7 [707 kB]
Get:5 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main fontconfig armhf 2.11.0-6.3+deb8u1 [402 kB]
Get:6 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libglib2.0-0 armhf 2.42.1-1 [2250 kB]
Get:7 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libatk1.0-data all 2.14.0-1 [181 kB]
Get:8 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libatk1.0-0 armhf 2.14.0-1 [84.2 kB]
Get:9 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libatspi2.0-0 armhf 2.14.0-1 [49.8 kB]
Get:10 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libatk-bridge2.0-0 armhf 2.14.0-2 [45.6 kB]
Get:11 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libavahi-common-data armhf 0.6.31-5 [98.8 kB]
Get:12 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libavahi-common3 armhf 0.6.31-5 [48.0 kB]
Get:13 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libavahi-client3 armhf 0.6.31-5 [50.6 kB]
Get:14 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcb-shm0 armhf 1.10-3 [11.0 kB]
Get:15 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libcairo2 armhf 1.14.0-2.1+deb8u2 [662 kB]
Get:16 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libcairo-gobject2 armhf 1.14.0-2.1+deb8u2 [304 kB]
Get:17 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libcap-ng0 armhf 0.7.4-2 [12.0 kB]
Get:18 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main liblcms2-2 armhf 2.6-3+deb8u2 [117 kB]
Get:19 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libcolord2 armhf 1.2.1-1+b2 [215 kB]
Get:20 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libcroco3 armhf 0.6.8-3 [121 kB]
Get:21 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libcups2 armhf 1.7.5-11+deb8u4 [254 kB]
Get:22 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libdatrie1 armhf 0.2.8-1 [29.1 kB]
Get:23 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libdconf1 armhf 0.22.0-1 [31.1 kB]
Get:24 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libjasper1 armhf 1.900.1-debian1-2.4+deb8u6 [111 kB]
Get:25 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgdk-pixbuf2.0-common all 2.31.1-2+deb8u7 [294 kB]
Get:26 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0 armhf 2.31.1-2+deb8u7 [148 kB]
Get:27 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgraphite2-3 armhf 1.3.10-1~deb8u1 [73.0 kB]
Get:28 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main dconf-service armhf 0.22.0-1 [38.0 kB]
Get:29 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main dconf-gsettings-backend armhf 0.22.0-1 [30.1 kB]
Get:30 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main hicolor-icon-theme all 0.13-1 [8600 B]
Get:31 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libthai-data all 0.1.21-1 [159 kB]
Get:32 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libthai0 armhf 0.1.21-1 [43.4 kB]
Get:33 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libpango-1.0-0 armhf 1.36.8-3 [274 kB]
Get:34 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libharfbuzz0b armhf 0.9.35-2 [464 kB]
Get:35 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libpangoft2-1.0-0 armhf 1.36.8-3 [207 kB]
Get:36 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libpangocairo-1.0-0 armhf 1.36.8-3 [197 kB]
Get:37 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libwayland-cursor0 armhf 1.6.0-2 [11.3 kB]
Get:38 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcomposite1 armhf 1:0.4.4-1 [16.8 kB]
Get:39 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxcursor1 armhf 1:1.1.14-1+deb8u2 [31.8 kB]
Get:40 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxinerama1 armhf 2:1.1.3-1 [16.9 kB]
Get:41 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxkbcommon0 armhf 0.4.3-2 [102 kB]
Get:42 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxrandr2 armhf 2:1.4.2-1+deb8u1 [32.9 kB]
Get:43 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgtk-3-bin armhf 3.14.5-1+deb8u1 [91.2 kB]
Get:44 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main librsvg2-2 armhf 2.40.5-1+deb8u2 [232 kB]
Get:45 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main librsvg2-common armhf 2.40.5-1+deb8u2 [170 kB]
Get:46 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main adwaita-icon-theme all 3.14.0-2 [9978 kB]
Get:47 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgtk-3-common all 3.14.5-1+deb8u1 [3155 kB]
Get:48 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libjson-glib-1.0-common all 1.0.2-1 [147 kB]
Get:49 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libjson-glib-1.0-0 armhf 1.0.2-1 [151 kB]
Get:50 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libproxy1 armhf 0.4.11-4 [55.6 kB]
Get:51 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main glib-networking-common all 2.42.0-2 [52.1 kB]
Get:52 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main glib-networking-services armhf 2.42.0-2 [16.6 kB]
Get:53 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main gsettings-desktop-schemas all 3.14.1-1 [391 kB]
Get:54 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main glib-networking armhf 2.42.0-2 [43.9 kB]
Get:55 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libsoup2.4-1 armhf 2.48.0-1+deb8u2 [216 kB]
Get:56 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libsoup-gnome2.4-1 armhf 2.48.0-1+deb8u2 [57.1 kB]
Get:57 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main librest-0.7-0 armhf 0.7.92-3 [27.9 kB]
Get:58 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main shared-mime-info armhf 1.3-1 [630 kB]
Get:59 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libgtk-3-0 armhf 3.14.5-1+deb8u1 [1885 kB]
Get:60 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libxklavier16 armhf 5.2.1-1 [50.0 kB]
Get:61 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main liblightdm-gobject-1-0 armhf 1.10.3-3 [45.4 kB]
Get:62 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main dbus armhf 1.8.22-0+deb8u1 [248 kB]
Get:63 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libpam-systemd armhf 215-17+deb8u13 [114 kB]
Get:64 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main lightdm-gtk-greeter armhf 1.8.5-2 [66.0 kB]
Get:65 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main lightdm armhf 1.10.3-3 [139 kB]
Fetched 28.2 MB in 1min 4s (441 kB/s)
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76, <> line 65.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
Extracting templates from packages: 100%
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Setting up libcap-ng0:armhf (0.7.4-2) ...
Setting up liblcms2-2:armhf (2.6-3+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libcolord2:armhf (1.2.1-1+b2) ...
Setting up libcroco3:armhf (0.6.8-3) ...
Setting up libcups2:armhf (1.7.5-11+deb8u4) ...
Setting up libdatrie1:armhf (0.2.8-1) ...
Setting up libdconf1:armhf (0.22.0-1) ...
Setting up libjasper1:armhf (1.900.1-debian1-2.4+deb8u6) ...
Setting up libgdk-pixbuf2.0-common (2.31.1-2+deb8u7) ...
Setting up libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0:armhf (2.31.1-2+deb8u7) ...
Setting up libgraphite2-3:armhf (1.3.10-1~deb8u1) ...
Setting up dconf-service (0.22.0-1) ...
Setting up dconf-gsettings-backend:armhf (0.22.0-1) ...
Setting up hicolor-icon-theme (0.13-1) ...
Setting up libthai-data (0.1.21-1) ...
Setting up libthai0:armhf (0.1.21-1) ...
Setting up libpango-1.0-0:armhf (1.36.8-3) ...
Setting up libharfbuzz0b:armhf (0.9.35-2) ...
Setting up libpangoft2-1.0-0:armhf (1.36.8-3) ...
Setting up libpangocairo-1.0-0:armhf (1.36.8-3) ...
Setting up libwayland-cursor0:armhf (1.6.0-2) ...
Setting up libxcomposite1:armhf (1:0.4.4-1) ...
Setting up libxcursor1:armhf (1:1.1.14-1+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libxinerama1:armhf (2:1.1.3-1) ...
Setting up libxkbcommon0:armhf (0.4.3-2) ...
Setting up libxrandr2:armhf (2:1.4.2-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up librsvg2-2:armhf (2.40.5-1+deb8u2) ...
Setting up librsvg2-common:armhf (2.40.5-1+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libjson-glib-1.0-common (1.0.2-1) ...
Setting up libjson-glib-1.0-0:armhf (1.0.2-1) ...
Setting up libproxy1:armhf (0.4.11-4) ...
Setting up glib-networking-common (2.42.0-2) ...
Setting up glib-networking-services (2.42.0-2) ...
Setting up gsettings-desktop-schemas (3.14.1-1) ...
Setting up glib-networking:armhf (2.42.0-2) ...
Setting up libsoup2.4-1:armhf (2.48.0-1+deb8u2) ...
Setting up libsoup-gnome2.4-1:armhf (2.48.0-1+deb8u2) ...
Setting up librest-0.7-0:armhf (0.7.92-3) ...
Setting up shared-mime-info (1.3-1) ...
Setting up libxklavier16 (5.2.1-1) ...
Setting up liblightdm-gobject-1-0 (1.10.3-3) ...
Setting up dbus (1.8.22-0+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libpam-systemd:armhf (215-17+deb8u13) ...
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
Setting up libgtk-3-bin (3.14.5-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up adwaita-icon-theme (3.14.0-2) ...
Setting up libgtk-3-common (3.14.5-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up libgtk-3-0:armhf (3.14.5-1+deb8u1) ...
Setting up lightdm-gtk-greeter (1.8.5-2) ...
update-alternatives: using /usr/share/xgreeters/lightdm-gtk-greeter.desktop to provide /usr/share/xgreeters/lightdm-greeter.desktop (lightdm-greeter) in auto mode
Setting up lightdm (1.10.3-3) ...
debconf: unable to initialize frontend: Dialog
debconf: (No usable dialog-like program is installed, so the dialog based frontend cannot be used. at /usr/share/perl5/Debconf/FrontEnd/Dialog.pm line 76.)
debconf: falling back to frontend: Readline
Adding group `lightdm' (GID 111) ...
Done.
Adding system user `lightdm' (UID 107) ...
Adding new user `lightdm' (UID 107) with group `lightdm' ...
Creating home directory `/var/lib/lightdm' ...
usermod: no changes
usermod: no changes
usermod: no changes
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-18+deb8u10) ...
Processing triggers for libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0:armhf (2.31.1-2+deb8u7) ...
Processing triggers for systemd (215-17+deb8u13) ...
Processing triggers for dbus (1.8.22-0+deb8u1) ...

Свернуть

Наконец, нужно установить терминал XTerm:

apt-get install xterm

Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree
Reading state information... Done
The following extra packages will be installed:
  libutempter0 xbitmaps
Suggested packages:
  xfonts-cyrillic
Recommended packages:
  x11-utils
The following NEW packages will be installed:
  libutempter0 xbitmaps xterm
0 upgraded, 3 newly installed, 0 to remove and 59 not upgraded.
Need to get 610 kB of archives.
After this operation, 1830 kB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y
Get:1 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main libutempter0 armhf 1.1.5-4 [7516 B]
Get:2 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xbitmaps all 1.1.1-2 [32.1 kB]
Get:3 http://archive.raspbian.org/raspbian/ jessie/main xterm armhf 312-2 [571 kB]
Fetched 610 kB in 1s (471 kB/s)
Selecting previously unselected package libutempter0.
(Reading database ... 23008 files and directories currently installed.)
Preparing to unpack .../libutempter0_1.1.5-4_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking libutempter0 (1.1.5-4) ...
Selecting previously unselected package xbitmaps.
Preparing to unpack .../xbitmaps_1.1.1-2_all.deb ...
Unpacking xbitmaps (1.1.1-2) ...
Selecting previously unselected package xterm.
Preparing to unpack .../archives/xterm_312-2_armhf.deb ...
Unpacking xterm (312-2) ...
Processing triggers for mime-support (3.58) ...
Processing triggers for hicolor-icon-theme (0.13-1) ...
Setting up libutempter0 (1.1.5-4) ...
Setting up xbitmaps (1.1.1-2) ...
Setting up xterm (312-2) ...
update-alternatives: using /usr/bin/xterm to provide /usr/bin/x-terminal-emulator (x-terminal-emulator) in auto mode
update-alternatives: using /usr/bin/lxterm to provide /usr/bin/x-terminal-emulator (x-terminal-emulator) in auto mode
Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-18+deb8u10)

Свернуть

Маленький штрих - для ускорения отрисовки окон нужно открыть файлы стилей BlackBox из каталога /usr/share/blackbox/styles, изменить значение параметра window.frame с gradient на Raised Solid и сохранить изменения:

Готово, графический интерфейс установлен, остаётся перезагрузитть микрокомпьютер командой

reboot

После загрузки появится графическое окошко ввода имени и пароля:

После входа в систему загружается оконный менеджер, который имеет минимум функций:

Чтобы заменить минимальное меню своим, нужно в каталоге /etc/X11/blackbox создать файл blackbox-menu, прописать в нём

[begin] (Blackbox)
[exec] (Xterm) {xterm}
[exec] (Reboot) {reboot}
[exit] (EXIT)
[end]

и сохранить. Готово, графический интерфейс запустился и заработал!


Что дальше?

Остаётся установить нужные прикладные программы с графическим интерфейсом. В первую очередь это, файловый менеджер XFE со встроенным текстовым редактором и просмотрщиком изображений:

Далее, можно установить простенький браузер, например, NetSurf:

Наконец, графический менеджер пакетов Synaptics:

Установленные программы надо будет прописать в меню BlackBox.

Производительность графики упирается в процессорную мощность микрокомпьютера - загрузка процессора во время отрисовки двух окон достигает 95%, при потреблении памяти порядка 30%:

Стоит отметить, что ради графического интерфейса умельцы в середине 90-х годов прошлого века умудрялись устанавливать Windows 95 даже на машины с процессором 386DX-40 и объёмом ОЗУ 4 Мб! Правда, графический интерфейс на таких машинах выполнял больше декоративную функцию, чем практическую.


Обновлено - 15.06.2019. Исправлено для просмотра в простых браузерах для слабых компьютеров.


Благодарю за внимание, доброго здоровья!



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